Vmware – vCenter Server Heartbeat – 6.3 – Installation Guide

Category: Software and Application User Guides and Manuals

Download user manual for Vmware – vCenter Server Heartbeat – 6.3 – Installation Guide 
Preview: Below is a preview of the manual as extracted from the PDF file


Installation Guide
VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat 6.3 Update 1
This document supports the version of each product listed and
supports all subsequent versions until the document is replaced
by a new edition. To check for more recent editions of this
document, see http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
EN-000561-03VMware,Inc.
3401 Hillview Ave.
Palo Alto, CA 94304
www.vmware.com
2 VMware, Inc.
Installation Guide

You can find the most up-to-date technical documentation on the VMware Web site at:
http://www.vmware.com/support/
The VMware Web site also provides the latest product updates.
If you have comments about this documentation, submit your feedback to:
docfeedback@vmware.com
Copyright © 2010 VMware, Inc. All rights reserved. This product is protected by U.S. and international copyright and
intellectual property laws. VMware products are covered by one or more patents listed at
http://www.vmware.com/go/patents.
VMware is a registered trademark or trademark of VMware, Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. All other marks
and names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies. VMware, Inc. 3

Contents
About This Book 5
Getting Started
1 Introduction 9
Overview 9
vCenter Server Heartbeat Concepts 9
Architecture 9
Protection Levels 11
Communications 14
vCenter Server Heartbeat Switchover and Failover Processes 15
Installation
2 vCenter Server Heartbeat Implementation 21
Overview 21
Environmental Prerequisites 21
Common Requirements 22
Server Architecture Options 23
Virtual to Virtual (V2V) 23
Physical to Virtual (P2V) 23
Physical to Physical (P2P) 24
Cloning Technology Options 24
Supported Pre-Clone Technologies 24
Supported Install Clone Technologies 25
vCenter Server with SQL Server on the Same Host 26
vCenter Server with SQL Server on a Separate Host 26
vCenter Server Only 26
Network Options 26
LAN 26
WAN 28
Antivirus Recommendations 29
Deployment Options Summary 29
Installation Options Checklist 30
3 Installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on Identical Nodes 31
Overview 31
Installation Process 31
Primary Server 32
Secondary Server 38
vCenter Server Heartbeat Console 44
Navigate vCenter Server Heartbeat Console 44
Add a vCenter Server Group 44
Add a New Connection 45
Post Installation Configuration 45Installation Guide
4 VMware, Inc.

Configuring VirtualCenter Plug-in with the Correct Credentials 45
When Deployed in a WAN Environment 46
vCenter Server 2.5 46
Installing the View Composer Plug-in 47
Installation of Client Tools 47
4 Installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on Non-Identical Nodes 49
Overview 49
Installation Process 49
Installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on Non-Identical Nodes 50
Primary Server 50
Secondary Server 54
vCenter Server Heartbeat Console 58
Navigate vCenter Server Heartbeat Console 58
Add a vCenter Server Group 59
Add a New Connection 59
Post Installation Configuration 60
Configuring VirtualCenter Plug-in with the Correct Credentials 60
Configuring SQL Server Plug-in to run with the Correct Credentials 61
Installing the View Composer Plug-in 61
Installation of Client Tools 61
Appendix – Setup Error Messages 63
Glossary 65VMware, Inc. 5

The Installation Guide provides information about installing VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat, including
implementation in a Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN) and using identical nodes or
non-identical nodes. To help you protect your VMware vCenter Server, the book provides an overview of
protection offered by vCenter Server Heartbeat and the actions that vCenter Server Heartbeat can take in the
event of a network, hardware, or application failure.
Intended Audience
This guide assumes the reader has working knowledge of networks including the configuration of TCP/IP
protocols and domain administration on the Windows™ 2003 and 2008 platforms, notably in Active Directory
and DNS.
VMware Technical Publications Glossary
VMware Technical Publications provides a glossary of terms that might be unfamiliar to you. For definitions
of terms as they are used in VMware technical documentation go to http://www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
Overview of Content
This guide is designed to give guidance on the installation vCenter Server Heartbeat, and is organized into the
following sections:
„ Preface — About This Book (this chapter) provides an overview of this guide and the conventions used
throughout.
„ Chapter 1 — Introduction presents an overview of vCenter Server Heartbeat concepts including the
Switchover and Failover processes.
„ Chapter 2 — vCenter Server Heartbeat Implementation discusses environmental prerequisites and common
requirements for installation, options for server architecture, cloning technology , application components,
and network configurations. It also gives guidance on antivirus solutions, and provides a convenient
summary and checklist to follow as you perform the installation.
„ Chapter 3 — Installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on Identical Nodes describes the installation process, guides
you through installation on the Primary and Secondary servers using identical nodes, and through
post-installation configuration.
„ Chapter 4 — Installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on Non-Identical Nodes describes the installation process,
guides you through installation on the Primary and Secondary servers using non-identical nodes, and
through post-installation configuration.
„ Appendix A— Setup Error Messages lists error messages that may appear during setup and tests that will
help you resolve the errors.
About This BookInstallation Guide
6 VMware, Inc.

Document Feedback
VMware welcomes your suggestions for improving our documentation and invites you to send your feedback
to docfeedback@vmware.com.
Abbreviations Used in Figures
The figures in this book use the abbreviations listed in Table 1.
Technical Support and Education Resources
The following sections describe the technical support resources available to you. To access the current version
of this book and other books, go to www.vmware.com/support/pubs.
Online and Telephone Support
Go to www.vmware.com/support to use online support to submit technical support requests, view your
product and contract information, and register your products.
Go to www.vmware.com/support/phone_support.html to find out how to use telephone support for the
fastest response on priority 1 issues (applies to customers with appropriate support contracts).
Support Offerings
Go to www.vmware.com/support/services to find out how VMware support offerings can help meet your
business needs.
VMware Professional Services
Go to www.vmware.com/services to access information about education classes, certification programs, and
consulting services. VMware Education Services courses offer extensive hands-on labs, case study examples,
and course materials designed for use as on-the-job reference tools. Courses are available onsite, in the
classroom, and live online. For onsite pilot programs and implementation best practices, VMware Consulting
Services provides offerings to help you assess, plan, build, and manage your virtual environment.
Table 1. Abbreviations
Abbreviation Description
Channel VMware Channel
NIC Network Interface Card
P2P Physical to Physical
P2V Physical to Virtual
V2V Virtual to VirtualVMware, Inc. 7

Getting StartedInstallation Guide
8 VMware, Inc.
VMware, Inc. 9

1
This chapter includes the following topics:
„ “vCenter Server Heartbeat Concepts” on page 9
„ “vCenter Server Heartbeat Switchover and Failover Processes” on page 15
Overview
vCenter Server Heartbeat is a Windows based service specifically designed to provide high availability
protection for vCenter Server configurations without requiring any specialized hardware.
vCenter Server Heartbeat Concepts
Architecture
vCenter Server Heartbeat software is installed on a Primary (production) server and a Secondary
(ready-standby) server. These names refer to the physical hardware (identity) of the servers.
Depending on the network environment, vCenter Server Heartbeat can be deployed in a Local Area Network
(LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN). Additionally, vCenter Server Heartbeat allows for installation using
identical nodes (LAN and WAN) or non-identical nodes (LAN only). These features provide flexibility
necessary to address most network environments.
Depending on the network environment and architecture selected, vCenter Server Heartbeat can be
configured where the Primary and Secondary server have the same domain name and Principal (Public) IP
address (identical nodes) or where the Primary and Secondary servers have different domain names but share
the Principal (Public) IP address (non-identical nodes). In either architecture, the Secondary server will have
the same file and data structure and can run all of the same applications and services as the Primary server.
The vCenter Server Heartbeat software is symmetrical in almost all respects, and either the Primary server or
the Secondary server can take the active role and provide protected applications to the user.
When deployed, vCenter Server Heartbeat uses two servers with either identical Principal (Public) IP
addresses for identical nodes or a shared Principal (Public) IP address for non-identical nodes. One of the
servers performs the role of the active server that is visible on the Public network while the other is the passive
server that is hidden from the Public network but remains as a ready-standby server. Only one server can
display the Principal (Public) IP address and be visible on the Public network at any given time.
Identical Nodes Configuration
When configured for identical nodes, vCenter Server Heartbeat uses two servers with the same domain name,
Principal (Public) network IP address, file and data structure, applications, and services to ensure that vCenter
Server is running and available. With a packet filter installed on both servers Principal (Public) NICs, vCenter
Server Heartbeat applies the packet filter to the Principal (Public) NIC on the passive server thereby blocking
communications and hiding the passive server from the Public network. When a switchover occurs, the packet
Introduction 1Installation Guide
10 VMware, Inc.

filter on the currently active server is enabled preventing communications on the Public network while the
packet filter on the currently passive server is disabled thereby allowing the two servers to switch roles. From
this point on, the previously passive server is now active and servicing the clients. The previously active server
is now passive and hidden from the Public network.
In the event of a failover, the previously active server is deemed to have failed and no further actions are
necessary. The packet filter on the previously passive server is disabled allowing the server to become visible
on the Public network and service clients as the new active server.
Advantages of Identical Nodes Configuration
Identical node configuration provides for a simplified installation and supports Virtual to Virtual, Virtual to
Physical, and Physical to Physical architectures. Additionally, identical node configuration supports use of
both the Pre-clone and Install clone, installation techniques. When configured with identical nodes, vCenter
Server Heartbeat provides two identical servers that can function as the active server servicing clients.
Additionally , with identical nodes, organizations can deploy vCenter Server Heartbeat in WAN environments
thereby extending protection over wide geographic distances.
Non-Identical Nodes Configuration
Non-identical node configuration provides enhanced management capabilities to the vCenter Heartbeat
Server cluster by providing continuous access to the passive server simultaneously while the active server
continues to service clients. When configured with non-identical nodes, vCenter Server Heartbeat uses unique
server names for each server and enhanced IP address management capabilities to accommodate Microsoft
(updatable) DNS servers and Locked Down mode or non-Microsoft DNS servers while providing the same
levels of protection as when configured with identical nodes.
The Secondary server has a different Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) than the Primary server but uses
the same file and data structure, same Principal (Public) network address, and can run all the same
applications and services as the Primary server. With vCenter Server Heartbeat software symmetrical in
almost all respects, either the Primary server or the Secondary server can assume the active role and provide
protected applications to the user.
Additionally, this configuration allows the passive server to be easily accessed for maintenance purposes,
updating anti-virus definition files, receiving operating system hot-fixes, updates and patches from
third-party management software, and allows use of third-party monitoring tools.
Switchover/Failover Without Updating DNS Servers
Select the Non-Identical option when you want to deploy vCenter Server Heartbeat with non-identical nodes
in an environment that does not permit updating DNS (a non-updatable Microsoft DNS server (or Locked
Down Mode) or a non-Microsoft DNS server). This configuration requires vCenter Server vCenter Server 4.0
Update 1 or later, if SQL Server is deployed, it must be remote, and since DNS will not be updated
automatically, you must prepopulate the DNS server with entries for the new management names and IP
addresses of the Primary and Secondary servers. vCenter Server Heartbeat uses permanently assigned unique
Management IP addresses on both the Primary and Secondary servers. Adjacent IP addresses should be
reserved and used for the Principal (Public) IP address and the Management IP addresses for the Primary and
Secondary Servers when installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on non-identical nodes on servers running
Windows 2008. When vCenter Server Heartbeat is started, the shared Principal (Public) IP address is provided
to the active server. When a switchover occurs, the shared Principal (Public) IP address is removed from the
previously active server (making it passive) and provided to the previously passive server (making it active)
allowing the servers to switch roles and the new active server to begin servicing clients.
Microsoft DNS Server Updated During Switchover/Failover
Select the Non-identical (Updates MS DNS) option when you want to deploy vCenter Server Heartbeat with
non-identical nodes in an environment where vCenter Server 4.0 Update 1 or later is installed, if SQL Server
is deployed it must be remote, a Microsoft DNS server that permits updates is used, and you want to take
advantage of the enhanced passive server management capabilities. vCenter Server Heartbeat interacts with
the DNS server and following a switchover, will ensure that servers are correctly identified on the network by
updating DNS information. vCenter Server Heartbeat uses unique server names and Management IP VMware, Inc. 11
Chapter 1 Introduction

addresses for the Primary and Secondary servers separate from the shared Public (Principal) IP address.
Clients connect to vCenter Server using a unique virtual service name configured in vCenter Server Heartbeat
that resolves to the Public (Principal) IP address. When started, vCenter Server Heartbeat provides the passive
server its unique Management IP address and provides the active server with the shared Principal (Public) IP
address.
When a switchover occurs, vCenter Server Heartbeat removes the shared Principal (Public) IP address from
the currently active server and replaces it with its unique Management IP address. On the currently passive
server, vCenter Server Heartbeat removes the Management IP address and replaces it with the shared
Principal (Public) IP address thereby allowing the servers to switch roles.
Advantages of Non-Identical Nodes Configuration
Deployment of non-identical nodes allows for easy access to the passive (hidden/ready standby) server at any
time regardless of which server is active and servicing clients. Additionally, this configuration allows the
passive server to be easily accessed for maintenance purposes, updating anti-virus definition files, receiving
operating system hot-fixes, updates and patches from third-party management software, and allows use of
third-party monitoring tools.
Protection Levels
vCenter Server Heartbeat provides the following protection levels:
„ Server Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat provides continuous availability to end users through a
hardware failure scenario or operating system crash. Additionally, vCenter Server Heartbeat protects the
network identity of the production server, ensuring users are provided with a replica server on the failure
of the production server.
„ Network Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat proactively monitors the network by polling up to three
nodes to ensure that the active server is visible on the network.
„ Application Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat maintains the application environment ensuring that
applications and services stay alive on the network.
„ Performance Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat proactively monitors system performance attributes
to ensure that the system administrator is notified of problems and can take pre-emptive action to prevent
an outage.
„ Data Protection – vCenter Server Heartbeat intercepts all data written by users and applications, and
maintains a copy of this data on the passive server that can be used in the event of a failure.
vCenter Server Heartbeat provides all five protection levels continuously, ensuring all facets of the user
environment are maintained at all times, and that the network (Principal (Public) network) continues to
operate through as many failure scenarios as possible.
Server Protection
vCenter Server Heartbeat provides continuous availability to end users through a hardware failure scenario
or operating system crash. Additionally, vCenter Server Heartbeat protects the network identity of the
production server, ensuring users are provided with a replica server including server name (single identity
only) and IP address on the failure of the production server.
Two instances of vCenter Server Heartbeat regularly send “I’m alive” messages and message
acknowledgments to one another over a network connection referred to as the VMware Channel to detect
interruptions in responsiveness. If the passive server detects that this monitoring process (referred to as the
heartbeat) has failed, it initiates a failover as illustrated in Figure 1-1.Installation Guide
12 VMware, Inc.

Figure 1-1. Failover
A failover is similar to a switchover but is used in more urgent situations, such as when the passive server
detects that the active server is no longer responding. This can occur when the active server hardware fails,
loses its network connections, or otherwise becomes unavailable. Rather than the active server gracefully
closing, the passive server determines that the active server has failed and requires no further operations. In a
failover, the passive server immediately assumes the active server role. The failover process is discussed later
in this guide.
Network Protection
vCenter Server Heartbeat proactively monitors the network by polling up to three nodes to ensure that the
active server is visible on the network. vCenter Server Heartbeat polls defined nodes around the network,
including the default gateway, the primary DNS server, and the global catalog server at regular intervals. If
all three nodes fail to respond, for example, in the case of a network card failure or a local switch failure,
vCenter Server Heartbeat can initiate a switchover, allowing the Secondary server to assume an identical
network identity as the Primary server.
Application Protection
vCenter Server Heartbeat running on the active server locally monitors the applications and services it has
been configured to protect (through the use of plug-ins) to verify that protected applications are operational
and not in an unresponsive or stopped state. This level of monitoring is fundamental in ensuring that
applications remain available to users.
If a protected application fails, vCenter Server Heartbeat first tries to restart the application on the active server
(1) in Figure 1-2.
If the application does not successfully restart, vCenter Server Heartbeat initiates a switchover (2) in
Figure 1-2. Refer to “vCenter Server Heartbeat Switchover and Failover Processes” on page 15 for further
information about the switchover process.VMware, Inc. 13
Chapter 1 Introduction

Figure 1-2. Switchover
A switchover gracefully closes any protected applications that are running on the active server and restarts
them on the passive server, including the application or service that caused the failure. In the example where
the Primary server is active and the Secondary server is passive, the Primary server is demoted to a passive
role and is hidden from the network when the Secondary server is promoted to an active role and is made
visible to the network. The mechanics of switchovers are discussed in more detail later in this guide.
Performance Protection
Ensuring that your protected applications are operational and providing service at a level of performance
adequate for users to remain productive is important. The vCenter Server Heartbeat plug-in provides these
monitoring and pre-emptive repair capabilities.
vCenter Server Heartbeat proactively monitors system performance attributes to ensure that the system
administrator is notified of problems and can take pre-emptive action to prevent an outage.
In addition to monitoring application services, vCenter Server Heartbeat can monitor specific application
attributes to ensure that they remain within normal operating ranges. Similar to application monitoring,
various rules can be configured to trigger specific corrective actions whenever these attributes fall outside of
their respective ranges.
vCenter Server Heartbeat provides the same level of flexibility to define and perform multiple corrective
actions in the event of problems on a service by service or even attribute by attribute basis.
Data Protection
You can configure vCenter Server Heartbeat to protect the application environment. All data files that users
or the applications require in the application environment are made available should a failure occur. After
installation, vCenter Server Heartbeat configures itself to protect files, folders, and registry settings for
vCenter Server on the active server by mirroring them in real time to the passive server. If a failover occurs,
all files protected on the failed server are available to users after the failover, hosted on the Secondary server.
vCenter Server Heartbeat intercepts all file system I/O operations on the active server. If the intercepted write
and update operations are within the protected set, these are placed in a queue on the active server referred to
as the active server’s send queue, pending transmission to the passive server. Each request is numbered to
maintain its order in the queue.
With the request in the active server’s send queue, vCenter Server Heartbeat allows the disk I/O to continue
with the requested disk operation.
If the channel is connected, the active server’s send queue is transferred to the passive server, which places all
the requests in the passive server’s receive queue. The passive server confirms the changes were logged by
sending the active server an acknowledgement. The active server clears the data from its queue.Installation Guide
14 VMware, Inc.

Figure 1-3. Apply Process
The apply process running on the passive server’s receive queue applies all updates in strict sequence,
duplicating an identical set of file operations on the passive server as illustrated in Figure 1-3.
Communications
The VMware Channel is a crucial component of the setup and can be configured in a number of ways.
Both the Primary and Secondary servers must have two or more network interface connections (NICs).
The Principal (Public) network requires one NIC. The VMware Channel uses a separate NIC for the private
connection between the servers used for control and data transfer between the pair of servers.
A second pair of NICs can be used to provide a degree of redundancy for the VMware Channel. In this
configuration, the VMware Channel has a dual channel if more than one dedicated NIC is provided for the
VMware Channel on each server. To provide added resilience, the communications for the second channel
must be completely independent from the first channel. They must not share any switches, virtual switches,
routers or the same WAN connection.
Figure 1-4. Communication Between Primary and Secondary Servers
The IP address a client uses to connect to the active server (the Principal (Public) IP address) must be
configured as a static IP address, that is, not DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) enabled. In the
figure above, the IP address is configured as 192.168.1.127.
NOTE Obtain the IP address: type ipconfig at the prompt in a DOS shell. For additional information about
the IP configuration, add the switch /All to the ipconfig command.VMware, Inc. 15
Chapter 1 Introduction

The Principal (Public) NICs on the passive server are configured to use the same IP address as that of the active
server but are prevented from communicating with the live network through an IP packet filtering system
installed with vCenter Server Heartbeat. This packet filter prevents traffic using the Principal (Public) address
from being committed to the wire. It also prevents NetBIOS traffic utilizing other IP addresses on the NIC from
being sent to prevent NetBIOS name resolution conflicts.
The NICs on the active and passive servers used for the VMware Channel are configured so that their IP
addresses are outside of the subnet range of the Principal (Public) network. These addresses are referred to as
VMware Channel addresses.
During installation, setup will switch off NetBIOS for the VMware Channel(s) on the active and passive
servers as this connection remains live and both the passive and active machines have the same NetBIOS
name. Following restore and after the vCenter Server Heartbeat installation completes (runtime), NetBIOS is
disabled across the channel(s). This occurs during installation to prevent a name conflict, which occurs when
both servers have the same name.
The NICs that support connectivity across the VMware Channel can be standard 100BaseT Ethernet cards
providing a throughput of 100 Mbits per second across standard Cat-5 cabling. In its most basic form, a
dedicated channel requires no hubs or routers, but the direct connection requires crossover cabling.
When configured for a WAN deployment, configure the VMware Channel to use static routes over switches
and routers to maintain continuous communications independent from corporate or public traffic.
vCenter Server Heartbeat Switchover and Failover Processes
vCenter Server Heartbeat uses four different procedures — managed switchover, automatic switchover,
automatic failover, and managed failover — to change the role of the active and passive servers depending on
the status of the active server.
Managed Switchover
You can click Make Active on the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console Server: Summary page to manually
initiate a managed switchover. When a managed switchover is triggered, the running of protected
applications is transferred from the active machine to the passive machine in the server pair. The server roles
are reversed.
Figure 1-5. Switchover
A managed switchover performs the following steps:
1 Stop the protected applications on the active server. After the protected applications stop, no more disk
updates are generated.
2 Send all updates that are still queued on the active server to the passive server. After this step, all updates
are available on the passive server.Installation Guide
16 VMware, Inc.

3 Re-designate the Secondary server as the new active server. After this step, vCenter Server Heartbeat:
„ Hides the previously active server from the network.
„ Makes the newly active server visible on the network. The newly active server has the same identity
as the previously active server, and begins to intercept and queue disk I/O operations for the newly
passive server.
4 vCenter Server Heartbeat causes the newly passive server to begin accepting updates from the active
server.
5 vCenter Server Heartbeat starts the same protected applications on the new active server. The protected
applications become accessible to users. The managed switchover is complete
Automatic Switchover
Automatic switchover (auto-switchover) is similar to failover (discussed in the next section) but is triggered
automatically when system monitoring detects failure of a protected application.
Like managed switchover, auto-switchover changes the server roles but then stops vCenter Server Heartbeat
on the previously active server to allow the administrator to investigate the cause of the auto-switchover and
verify the integrity of the data.
After the cause for the auto-switchover is determined and corrected, the administrator can use vCenter Server
Heartbeat Console to return the server roles to their original state.
Automatic Failover
Automatic failover is similar to automatic switchover (discussed above) but is triggered when the passive
server detects that the active server is no longer running properly and assumes the role of the active server.
Figure 1-6. Failover
During the automatic failover, the passive server performs the following steps:
1 Apply any intercepted updates currently in the passive server’s receive queue as identified by the log of
update records that are saved on the passive server but not yet applied to the replicated files.
The amount of data in the passive server’ s receive queue affects the time required to complete the failover
process. If the passive server’s receive queue is long, the system must wait for all updates to the passive
server to complete before the rest of the process can take place. An update record can be applied only if
all earlier update records are applied, and the completion status for the update is in the passive server’s
receive queue. When no more update records can be applied, any update records that cannot be applied
are discarded.
2 Switch mode of operation from passive to active.VMware, Inc. 17
Chapter 1 Introduction

This enables the public identity of the server. The active and passive servers both use the same system
name and same Principal (Public) IP address. This Principal (Public) IP address can be enabled only on
one system at anytime. When the public identity is enabled, any clients previously connected to the server
before the automatic failover are able to reconnect.
3 Start intercepting updates to protected data. Any updates to the protected data are saved in the send
queue on the local server.
4 Start all protected applications. The applications use the replicated application data to recover, and then
accept re-connections from any clients. Any updates that the applications make to the protected data are
intercepted and logged.
At this point, the originally active server is offline and the originally passive server is filling the active role
and is running the protected applications. Any updates that completed before the failover are retained.
Application clients can reconnect to the application and continue running as before.
Managed Failover
Managed failover is similar to automatic failover in that the passive server automatically determines that the
active server has failed and can warn the system administrator about the failure; but no failover actually occurs
until the system administrator manually triggers this operation.
Automatic Switchover and Failover in a WAN Environment
Automatic switchover and failover in a WAN environment differ from a automatic switchover and failover in
a LAN environment due to the nature of the WAN connection. In a WAN environment, automatic switchover
and failover are disabled by default in the event that the WAN connection is lost.
Should a condition arise that would normally trigger an automatic switchover or failover, the administrator
will receive vCenter Server Heartbeat alerts. The administrator must manually click the Make Active button
on the Server: Summary page of the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console to allow the roles of the servers to
switch over the WAN.
To enable Automatic Switchover in a WAN
1 In the vCenter Server Heartbeat Console, click the Network tab to display the Network Monitoring page.
2Click Configure Auto-switchover.
3 Select the Auto-switchover if client network connectivity lost for check box.
4 Configure the number of pings to wait before performing the auto-switchover.
5Click OK.
Recovery from a Failover
Assuming that the Primary server was active and the Secondary server was passive before the failover, after
the failover the Secondary server is active and the Primary server is passive.
After rectifying the problem that initiated the failover, it is a simple process to reinstate the Primary server as
the active server and the Secondary server as the passive server.
When vCenter Server Heartbeat starts on the failed Primary server, it detects that it did not stop cleanly the
previous time. It disables the public identity by deploying the IP packet filter and halts vCenter Server
Heartbeat so that the issues that caused the failure can be resolved.
NOTE When failover conditions such as a power failure cause both active and passive servers to fail, the
condition may result that causes both servers to restart in passive mode. In this situation, manual intervention
is required.Installation Guide
18 VMware, Inc.

To restore the previously failed server to the active role
1 Correct the conditions that caused the failover.
2 Verify the integrity of the disk data on the failed server.
3 Restart the failed, now passive, server after all issues are resolved.
4 Start vCenter Server Heartbeat on the passive server.
At this point, the instances of vCenter Server Heartbeat running on the servers connect and begin to
re-synchronize the data on the Primary server.
5 Wait until vCenter Server Heartbeat is fully synchronized.
When the re-synchronization is complete, you can continue operating with this configuration (for
example, the Secondary server is the active server and the Primary server is the passive server), or initiate
a managed switchover.
6 Optionally , perform a managed switchover to return the Primary and Secondary servers to the same roles
they had before the failover.VMware, Inc. 19

InstallationInstallation Guide
20 VMware, Inc.
VMware, Inc. 21

2
This chapter includes the following topics:
„ “Overview” on page 21
„ “Environmental Prerequisites” on page 21
„ “Common Requirements” on page 22
„ “Server Architecture Options” on page 23
„ “Cloning Technology Options” on page 24
„ “ Application Component Options” on page 25
„ “Network Options” on page 26
„ “ Antivirus Recommendations” on page 29
„ “Deployment Options Summary” on page 29
Overview
vCenter Server Heartbeat is a versatile solution that provides complete protection of vCenter Server and SQL
Server. It can be deployed in a LAN for high availability or across a WAN to provide disaster recovery.
vCenter Server Heartbeat can protect vCenter Server and SQL Server installed on the same server, or protect
vCenter Server and SQL Server on separate servers. This flexibility enables vCenter Server Heartbeat to
protect vCenter Server when using remote databases other than SQL Server.
This chapter discusses the deployment options and prerequisites to successfully implement vCenter Server
Heartbeat and provides a step-by-step process to assist in selecting options required for installation. The
deployment scenario table provides a visual reference to configuration options supported by vCenter Server
Heartbeat.
During the installation process, vCenter Server Heartbeat performs a variety of checks to ensure the server
meets the minimum requirements for a successful installation. A critical stop or warning message appears if
the server fails a check. Refer to the Appendix – Setup Error Messages in this guide for a list of the checks and
an explanation of the message. You must resolve critical stops before you can proceed with setup.
Prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat, select the deployment options you intend to use. The installation
process prompts you to select options throughout the procedure to create the configuration you want.
Environmental Prerequisites
vCenter Server Heartbeat cannot protect a server configured with the following roles: domain controller,
global catalog, or DNS.
vCenter Server Heartbeat
Implementation 2
NOTE Because vCenter Server Heartbeat only protects the vCenter Server and SQL Server applications, no
other critical business applications should be installed on the server.Installation Guide
22 VMware, Inc.

Common Requirements
The following requirements are in addition to those required for vCenter Server and SQL Server.
„ Supported vCenter Server Versions
„ VirtualCenter Server 2.5
„ VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 1
„ VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 2
„ VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 3
„ VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 4
„ VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 5
„ VirtualCenter Server 2.5 Update 6
„ vCenter Server 4.0
„ vCenter Server 4.0 Update 1
„ vCenter Server 4.0 Update 2
„ vCenter Server 4.1
„ vCenter Server 4.1 Update 1
„ Operating Systems
„ Windows Server 2003 x86 Standard SP2
„ Windows Server 2003 x86 Enterprise SP1 and SP2
„ Windows Server 2003 x64 Standard/Enterprise SP2
„ Windows Server 2003 R2 x64 Standard/Enterprise SP2
„ Windows Server 2008 x86 Standard/Enterprise SP1 and SP2
„ Windows Server 2008 x64 Standard/Enterprise SP1 and SP2
„ Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard/Enterprise
„ Prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat, verify that vCenter Guided Consolidation, vCenter Update
Manager, and vCenter Converter are configured using Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) rather
than IP addresses.
„ During the setup process, vCenter Server Heartbeat verifies that a minimum of 1GB RAM is available. To
ensure proper operation, vCenter Server Heartbeat requires a minimum of 1GB RAM (2GB is
recommended) in addition to any other memory requirement for the Operating System or vCenter Server.
„ Verify that 2GB of disk space is available on the installation drive for vCenter Server Heartbeat.
„ Obtain and use local administrator rights to perform vCenter Server Heartbeat installation.
„ Apply the latest Microsoft security updates.
„ All applications that will be protected by vCenter Server Heartbeat must be installed and configured on
the Primary server prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat.
NOTE If you are intending to deploy vCenter Server Heartbeat with non-identical nodes, you must use
vCenter Server 4.0 Update 1 or later.
NOTE vCenter Server Heartbeat supports protection of both standalone instances of vCenter Server 4.0.x
and also when in Linked Mode groups.VMware, Inc. 23
Chapter 2 vCenter Server Heartbeat Implementation

„ Verify that both Primary and Secondary servers have identical system date, time, and time Zone settings.
Once configured, do not change the time zone.
„ Verify that the Principal (Public) network adapter is listed as the first network adapter in the Network
Connections Bind Order. (Network Connections > Advanced > Advanced Settings).
„ Verify that the Managed IP setting in the Virtual Infrastructure Client is the same IP address used for the
vCenter Server Heartbeat Principal (Public) IP address.
„ If installing in a Windows 2008 server environment, User Account Control (UAC) must be disabled
during the installation process. After installation has completed, you may re-enable UAC.
Server Architecture Options
The selected server architecture affects the requirements for hardware and the technique used to clone the
Primary server.
Virtual to Virtual (V2V)
V2V is the supported architecture if vCenter Server is already installed on the production (Primary) server
running on a virtual machine. Benefits to this architecture include reduced hardware cost, shorter installation
time, and use of the Pre-Clone technique for installation.
The Secondary virtual machine must meet the minimum requirements.
„ The specifications of the Secondary virtual machine must match the specifications of the Primary virtual
machine as follows:
„ Similar CPU (including resource management settings)
„ Memory configuration (including resource management settings)
„ Appropriate resource pool priorities
„ Each virtual machine used in the V2V pair must be on a separate ESX host to guard against failure at the
host level.
„ Each virtual NIC must use a separate virtual switch.
Physical to Virtual (P2V)
P2V architecture is used when the environment requires a mix of physical and virtual machines, such as when
vCenter Server is installed on a physical server in an environment where available hardware is limited. This
architecture is appropriate if you must avoid adding more physical servers or if you plan to migrate to virtual
technologies over a period of time. With P2V architecture, you can test vCenter Server running in a virtual
environment or migrate from Physical to Virtual without any downtime. The Secondary virtual machine must
meet the minimum requirements.
„ The specifications of the Secondary virtual machine must match the Primary physical server as follows:
„ Similar CPU
„ Identical Memory
„ The Secondary virtual machine must have sufficient priority in resource management settings so that
other virtual machines do not impact its performance.
„ Each virtual NIC must use a separate virtual switch.
NOTE The V2V architecture is supported when deploying vCenter Server Heartbeat with non-identical nodes.
NOTE The P2V architecture is supported when deploying vCenter Server Heartbeat with non-identical nodes.Installation Guide
24 VMware, Inc.

Physical to Physical (P2P)
P2P architecture is used in environments where both the Primary and Secondary servers are physical servers.
Use of P2P limits installation options as it requires use of the Install Clone technique. This architecture requires
attention to detail when preparing for installation as both hardware and software must meet specific
prerequisites.
Primary Server
The Primary server must meet the following requirements:
„ Hardware as specified in “Common Requirements” on page 22.
„ Software as specified in “Common Requirements” on page 22.
Secondary Server
The Secondary server operates as a near clone of the Primary server and must meet the following
requirements.
Hardware
Hardware should be equivalent to the Primary server to ensure adequate performance when the server is in
the active role:
„ Similar CPU.
„ Similar memory.
„ Identical number of NICs to the Primary server.
„ Drive letters must match the Primary server.
„ Available disk space must be greater than or equal to the Primary server.
„ Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) compliance must match the Primary server. The
vCenter Server Heartbeat Standard implementation process assumes identical ACPI compliance on both
machines. If not, contact VMware Support at www.vmware.com/support for further information.
Software
Software on the Secondary server must meet the following requirements.
„ OS version and Service Pack version must match the Primary server.
„ OS must be installed to the same driver letter and directory as on the Primary server.
„ Machine name must be different from the Primary server prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat.
„ Set up in a workgroup prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat.
„ System date, time, and time zone settings must be consistent with the Primary server.
Cloning Technology Options
Cloning the Primary server to create a nearly identical Secondary server involves different techniques
depending on the selected server architecture.
Supported Pre-Clone Technologies
The following cloning technologies are supported for creating Pre-Cloned images for use as a Secondary
server:
„ VMware vCenter Converter for “Physical to Virtual (P2V)” on page 23.
NOTE The P2P architecture is not supported when deploying vCenter Server Heartbeat with non-identical
nodes.VMware, Inc. 25
Chapter 2 vCenter Server Heartbeat Implementation

„ VMware vCenter virtual machine cloning for “Virtual to Virtual (V2V)” on page 23.
Supported Install Clone Technologies
Installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat provides support for NTBackup on Windows 2003 and Wbadmin on
Windows Server 2008 for automated Install Cloning. This process is automated but requires meeting all
prerequisites for the Secondary server specified in “Physical to Physical (P2P)” on page 24.
Application Component Options
vCenter Server Heartbeat can accommodate any of the supported vCenter Server configurations and protects
the following components:
„ VirtualCenter Server Version 2.5
„ VMware VirtualCenter Server
„ VMware Capacity Planner
„ VMware Converter Enterprise
„ VMware Update Manager
„ VMware License Server
„ VMware Virtual Infrastructure Client
„ vCenter Server Version 4.0
„ VMware vCenter Server
„ VMware Guided Consolidation Service
„ VMware License Server
„ VMware ADAM
„ VMware vCenter Management Web Server
„ VMware vCenter Update Manager
„ VMware vCenter Converter
„ VMware vCenter Orchestrator
„ VMware vSphere Host Update Utility
„ VMware vSphere Client
„ vCenter Server Version 4.1
„ VMware vCenter Server
„ VMware Guided Consolidation Service
„ VMware License Sever
„ VMware ADAM
„ VMware vCenter Management Web Server
„ VMware vCenter Update Manager
„ VMware vCenter Converter
„ VMware vCenter Orchestrator
„ VMware vSphere Host Update Utility
„ VMware vSphere Client
„ View Composer 1.1 and 2.0
„ VMware View Composer
„ VMware Universal File Access
NOTE When using the Install Clone technique in a Physical to Virtual (P2V) architecture, VMware Tools must
not be installed on the Secondary (cloned) server during the vCenter Server Heartbeat installation process. If
VMware Tools are currently installed on the Secondary (cloned) server, you must fully uninstall VMware
Tools prior to initiation of the Setup process. Once the installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat has completed,
you may reinstall VMware Tools.Installation Guide
26 VMware, Inc.

„ vCenter Converter Enterprise
„ SQL Server Versions
„ Microsoft SQL Server 2005 SP1-SP3
„ Microsoft SQL Server 2008 including SP2
vCenter Server with SQL Server on the Same Host
To ensure adequate performance in 20+ host or 200+ virtual machine environments, VMware recommends
that SQL Server and vCenter Server be installed on separate physical disk drives. VMDKs must be on separate
datastores to avoid potential disk bottlenecks.
vCenter Server with SQL Server on a Separate Host
When installing vCenter Server Heartbeat in an environment where SQL Server is on a separate host from
vCenter Server, repeat the installation process for the Primary and Secondary server specifically for the SQL
Server.
To ensure proper failover, increase the default Heartbeat interval for the vCenter Server from 20 to 30 seconds.
vCenter Server Only
The vCenter Server Only option requires a single iteration of the installation process because the database is
not protected.
Network Options
Networking requirements are contingent upon how vCenter Server Heartbeat is deployed. To deploy as a
High Availability (HA) solution, a LAN configuration is required. To deploy vCenter Server Heartbeat for
Disaster Recovery (DR), a WAN configuration is required. Additionally, the server pair can be deployed with
identical nodes or non-identical nodes. Each network configuration has specific configuration requirements to
ensure proper operation.
LAN
When deployed in a LAN environment, vCenter Server Heartbeat requires that both servers use the same
Principal (Public) IP address. Each server also requires a separate VMware Channel IP address on a separate
dedicated subnet.
Non-Identical Nodes
If configuring for non-identical nodes, vCenter Server Heartbeat supports updatable Microsoft DNS servers
and non-updatable (Locked Down mode) or non-Microsoft DNS servers.
NOTE Ensure that all VMware components are bound to the Principal (Public) IP address on the Principal
(Public) network adapter and that the Principal (Public) network adapter is listed first in the bind order of the
Network Connections > Advanced > Advanced Settings page.
NOTE If deploying with non-identical nodes, SQL Server must be installed remote to vCenter Server.
NOTE vCenter Server Heartbeat does NOT out-of-the-box support teams of NICs but can be configured to
support teamed NICs with additional configuration steps when installing with teamed NICs present. See
Knowledge Base article 1027288 for more information about teamed NICs.
NOTE Deployment in a LAN environment is the only supported option when configuring for non-identical
nodes.VMware, Inc. 27
Chapter 2 vCenter Server Heartbeat Implementation

Microsoft DNS Server Updated During Switchover/Failover
Microsoft DNS servers must be updatable to allow operation of the DNSUpdate.exe If using Microsoft
Windows 2008 R2, the security level must be configured to permit changes to Windows Server 2008 R2 DNS
servers.
Switchover/Failover Without Updating DNS Servers
If using Microsoft DNS servers in a Locked Down mode or non-Microsoft DNS servers, vCenter Server
Heartbeat will not attempt to update DNS and therefore, the Administrator must prepopulate the DNS server
with entries for the new management names and IP addresses that are to be used. Adjacent IP addresses
should be reserved and used for the Principal (Public) IP address and the Management IP addresses for the
Primary and Secondary Servers when installing vCenter Server Heartbeat on non-identical nodes on servers
running Windows 2008.
Primary Server
Three NICs (1 x Public and 2 x Channel) are recommended for redundancy in the event one channel fails. A
minimum of two NICs (one for the Channel, and one for the Public) are required in this configuration.
Split-brain Avoidance should be configured.
„ Principal (Public) network connection configured with the following:
„ Static IP address
„ Correct network mask
„ Correct Gateway address
„ Correct preferred and secondary (if applicable) DNS server address
„ NetBIOS enabled
„ Channel Network connection(s) configured with the following:
„ Static IP address in a different subnet than the Principal (Public) network with a different IP address
than the Secondary server channel NIC
„ Correct network mask
„ No Gateway IP address
„ No DNS server address
„ NetBIOS enabled (disabled during the installation process)
Secondary Server
Networking components on the Secondary server must be configured as follows:
„ Same number of NICs as the Primary server
„ Principal (Public) network connection configured with temporary network settings
„ Channel network connection(s) configured with the following:
„ Static IP address in a different subnet than the Principal (Public) network with a different IP address
than the Primary server channel NIC
„ Correct network mask
„ No Gateway IP address
„ No DNS IP address
„ NetBIOS enabled (setup will disable this during the installation process
„ File and print sharing enabledInstallation Guide
28 VMware, Inc.

WAN
Deploying vCenter Server Heartbeat in a WAN environment requires additional considerations. Each server
within the vCenter Server Heartbeat pair requires its own separate Principal (Public) IP address and a
VMware Channel IP address in a separate dedicated subnet.
WAN Requirements
WAN deployments require the following:
„ Persistent static routing configured for the channel connection(s) where routing is required
„ Two NICs (1 x Public and 1 x Channel) are recommended
„ At least one Domain Controller at the Disaster Recovery (DR) site
„ If the Primary and DR site use the same subnet:
„ During install, follow the steps for a LAN or VLAN on the same subnet
„ Both servers in the vCenter Server Heartbeat pair use the same Public IP address
„ If the Primary and DR site use different subnets:
„ During install, follow the steps for a WAN
„ Both servers in the vCenter Server Heartbeat pair require a separate Principal (Public) IP address and
a VMware Channel IP address in a separate dedicated subnet
„ Provide a user account with rights to update DNS using the DNSUpdate utility provided as a
component of vCenter Server Heartbeat through vCenter Server Heartbeat Console Applications >
Tasks > User Accounts
„ VMware recommends integrating Microsoft DNS into AD so that DNSUpdate can identify all DNS
Servers that require updating
„ At least one Domain Controller at the DR site
„ Refer to the following articles in the VMware Knowledge Base:
„ KB 1008571 – Configuring DNS with VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat in a WAN Environment
„ KB 1008605 – Configuring vCenter Server Heartbeat to Update BIND9 DNS Servers Deployed in a
WAN
Firewall Configuration Requirements
When firewalls are used to protect networks, you must configure them to allow traffic to pass through both
the Client Connection port and the Default Channel port. VMware recommends that the Client Connection
port be configured by process rather than by specific port and that the Default Channel port be configured to
allow traffic to pass through on the specific configured port.
Bandwidth
Determine the available bandwidth and estimate the required volume of data throughput to determine
acceptable latency for the throughput. Additionally, the bandwidth can affect the required queue size to
accommodate the estimated volume of data. VMware recommends making a minimum of 1Mbit of spare
bandwidth available to vCenter Server Heartbeat.
vCenter Server Heartbeat includes automatic bandwidth optimization in WAN environments. This feature
compresses data transferred over the VMware Channel, optimizing the traffic for low bandwidth connections
causing some additional CPU load on the active server.
NOTE Non-identical nodes are not supported in a WAN environment.VMware, Inc. 29
Chapter 2 vCenter Server Heartbeat Implementation

Latency
Latency has a direct effect on data throughput. Latency on the link should not fall below the standard defined
for a T1 connection.
Heartbeat Diagnostics can assist in determining the available bandwidth, required bandwidth, and server
workload. For more information about Heartbeat Diagnostics, contact VMware Professional Services.
Antivirus Recommendations
Consult with and implement the advice of your antivirus (AV) provider, as VMware guidelines often follow
these recommendations. Consult the VMware knowledge base for up to date information on specific AV
products.
Do not use file level AV to protect application server databases, such as MS SQL Server databases. The nature
of database contents can cause false positives in virus detection, leading to failed database applications, data
integrity errors, and performance degradation.
VMware recommends that when implementing vCenter Server Heartbeat, you do not replicate file level AV
temp files using vCenter Server Heartbeat.
The file level AV software running on the Primary server must be the same as the software that runs on the
Secondary server. In addition, the same file level AV must run during both active and passive roles.
Configure file level AV to use the management IP address on the passive server for virus definition updates.
If this is not possible, manually update virus definitions on the passive server.
Exclude the following VMware directories from file level AV scans (C:Program FilesVMwareVMware
vCenter Server Heartbeat is the default installation directory):
„ C:Program FilesVMwareVMware vCenter Server Heartbeat
2logs
„ C:Program FilesVMwareVMware vCenter Server Heartbeat
2log
Any configuration changes made to a file level AV product on one server (such as exclusions) must be made
on the other server as well. vCenter Server Heartbeat does not replicate this information.
Deployment Options Summary
Table 2-1 provides all possible deployment options described in this section.
Table 2-1. Installation Options
Network Node Configuration Clone Technique Component
LAN WAN
Identical
Nodes
Non-identical
Nodes Pre-Clone
Install
Clone
vCenter
Server
w/SQL Local
vCenter Server
w/SQL Remote
vCenter
Server Only
V2VXX X X X XXX
P2VXX X X X X XXX
P2PXX X X XXXInstallation Guide
30 VMware, Inc.

Installation Options Checklist
Verify the prerequisites:
Server architecture:
___ P2P
___ P2V
___ V2V
Cloning technology option:
___ Pre-Clone Install
___ Install Clone
Application components to protect:
___ vCenter Server with SQL Server on same host
___ vCenter Server with SQL Server on separate host
___ vCenter Server only
Network environment type:
___ LAN
___ WAN
Identity Mode:
___ Identical Nodes
___ Non-Identical Nodes (Only supported in LAN, using V2V or P2V , Pre-Cloned environments)
___ Microsoft DNS Server Updated During Switchover/Failover
___ Switchover/Failover Without Updating DNS Servers (Locked Down mode) or non-Microsoft DNS
server
Is the subnet the same at the Secondary site?
„ If Yes, an IP address is required for this subnet
Active Directory Integrated DNS?
„ If Yes, a Domain Account with rights to update DNS is required.
„ If No, refer to the knowledge base articles in “Network Options” on page 26.VMware, Inc. 31

3
This chapter includes the following topics:
„ “Overview” on page 31
„ “Installation Process” on page 31
„ “Primary Server” on page 32
„ “Secondary Server” on page 38
„ “vCenter Server Heartbeat Console” on page 44
„ “Post Installation Configuration” on page 45
„ “Installation of Client Tools” on page 47
Overview
This chapter discusses the installation process used to implement vCenter Server Heartbeat on Windows
Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008. The installation process for all scenarios follows the same basic
procedure. Links to specific installation scenarios describing differences are identified by the blue hyperlinked
text.
Prior to installing vCenter Server Heartbeat, you must identify the deployment options you want. The
installation process requires you to select options throughout the procedure to achieve your configuration
goals.
Installation Process
After selecting implementation options, begin the installation process. During the installation process, vCenter
Server Heartbeat performs a variety of checks to ensure the server meets the minimum requirements for a
successful installation. Should the server fail one of the checks, a critical stop or warning message appears.
Refer to the Appendix – Setup Error Messages in this guide for a list of the checks and an explanation of the
message. You must resolve critical stops before you can proceed with setup.
Installing vCenter Server Heartbeat
on Identical Nodes 3Installation Guide
32 VMware, Inc.

Primary Server
Installation of vCenter Server Heartbeat begins on the Primary server.
To install the Primary Server
1 Having verified all of the environmental prerequisites are met, download the vCenter Server Heartbeat
WinZip self-extracting file to an appropriate location on the Primary server (either Physical or Virtual).
You have the following options:
„ For P2P , go to Step 2 to continue the installation.
„ For V2V or P2V installations with the Pre-Clone technique selected, begin with Step a below to
configure the network settings on the Secondary server.
a C

Leave a Comment